10 September, 2022

Dear Canadian Royal Heritage Trust Supporter:

The Canadian Royal Heritage Trust received the news of the death of the Sovereign with profound sorrow.

Her Majesty’s last hours were characteristic and of a pattern with her whole life. The day before her demise the Queen sent a message of condolence to the stricken people of Saskatchewan who were still in a state of shock from the horrendous murders that took place in their province. The last picture of the Queen will remain in the minds of all. It was of a bent, frail figure leaning on her walking stick for support but cheerfully smiling as she greeted Elizabeth Truss who had come to be appointed the new Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

This unflagging and lifelong service was what the Sovereign promised at the age of twenty-one in 1947. All her subjects and those more remotely connected will hold her pledge fulfilled. She was one of few people in public life today who have done so said one commentator.

The vast majority of Canadians have known no other Monarch than Queen Elizabeth II. To their surprise some are now suddenly aware of how much she figured in their lives. During the Queen’s long reign she raised Monarchy in Canada to a new level of visibility and participation, often under difficult and changing conditions. An increasingly noticeable vacuum has been evident in Canada since it was announced in 2010 that Her Majesty would not be coming again. It will be a challenge to her successors to emulate her generous sharing of her person.

In Ottawa at the time Her Majesty died a citizenship ceremony was taking place. The Citizenship Oath about to be administered to the prospective new Canadians was quickly altered from an oath to Queen Elizabeth II to one to King Charles III. The Queen is dead, long live the King.

The new King will be inspired by his mother’s achievement and will promise at his Coronation to reign in service over us, continuing the outstanding work she and all her forerunners on the Throne accomplished. We of the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust make our pledge in return ever to support his mission through loyalty to our Sovereign.

Over the period of mourning, Trust supporters will have the chance of attending official and private memorial services for the Queen or in other ways expressing their sentiments in person or virtually, and should take full advantage of the opportunity.

God save King Charles III.

Yours in loyalty,

Arthur Bousfield, Chairman

Trustees: Hon. Alan Redway, PC, QC, (Hon. Chairman); Arthur Bousfield (Chairman), Dr Paul Benoit (Vice-Chairman), Garry Toffoli (Vice-Chairman & Executive Director), Kirk Howard, CM, (Past-Chairman), Barbara Rusch (Recording Secretary.), Prof. John McLeod (Corresponding Secretary), Cyril Bagin (Ont.), Ted Chudleigh (Ont.), Charles Coulombe (U.S.), Keith Currie (Ont.), Rafal Heydel-Mankoo (U.K.), Jack Heath (Ont.), Elizabeth Honoridez-Leggett (Ont.); Stuart Iversen (Que.), Stu Kellock (Ont.), Stephen Klimczuk-Massion (B.C.), Christopher LePage (P.E.I.), Marc Lascelle (Que.), Chief Donald Maracle (Ont.), Prof. Jacques Monet (Ont.), Brian Romagnoli (Ont.), Dr Alexander Roman (Ont.), Downes Ryan (Que.), Michael Smith (Ont.), Jane Ann Thompson-McCaw (Ont.), Dr Richard Toporoski (B.C.), Thomas Wardle (Ont. & Bah.), Rod Wylie (Alta)

Commonwealth Day Message from His Majesty King Charles III 

Monday, 13 March 2023

Commonwealth Day was an occasion of particular pride for my beloved Mother, The late Queen – a treasured opportunity to celebrate our Commonwealth family, to whose service she dedicated her long and remarkable life. 

    In succeeding Her Majesty as Head of the Commonwealth, I draw great strength from her example, together with all that I have learnt from the extraordinary people I have met, throughout the Commonwealth over so many years. The Commonwealth has been a constant in my own life, and yet its diversity continues to amaze and inspire me.  Its near-boundless potential as a force for good in the world demands our highest ambition; its sheer scale challenges us to unite and be bold.  

    This week marks the tenth anniversary of the Charter of the Commmonwealth, which gives expression to our defining values – peace and justice; tolerance, respect and solidarity; care for our environment, and for the most vulnerable among us. These are not simply ideals.  In each lies an imperative to act, and to make a practical difference in the lives of the 2.6 billion people who call the Commonwealth home. 

    Whether on climate change or biodiversity loss, youth opportunity and education, global heath, or economic co-operation, the Commonwealth can play an indispensable role in the most pressing issues of our time.  Ours is an association not just of shared values, but of common purpose and joint action.  

    In this we are blessed with the ingenuity and imagination of a third of the world’s population, including one and a half billion people under the age of thirty.  Our shared humanity contains an immensely precious diversity of thought, culture, tradition and experience.  By listening to each other, we will find so many of the solutions that we seek.  

    This extraordinary potential, which we hold in common, is more than equal to the challenges that we face.  It offers us unparalleled strength not merely to face the future, but to build it.  Here, the Commonwealth has an incredible opportunity, and responsibility, to create a genuinely durable future – one that offers the kind of prosperity that is in harmony with Nature and that will also secure our unique and only planet for generations to come. 

    The myriad connections between our nations have sustained and enriched us for more than seven decades.  Our commitment to peace, progress and opportunity will sustain us for many more. 

    Let ours be a Commonwealth that not only stands together, but strives together, in restless and practical pursuit of the global common good.


Coronation of King Charles III

Celebrations and Resources

Canadian Celebrations for the Coronation of His Majesty King Charles III

The Canadian Coronation Emblem

Coronation of His Majesty The King & Her Majesty The Queen Consort - UK Gov Official

BBC News - Your Essential Guide to the Coronation Weekend

CBC News - How to Watch the Coronation on CBC Platforms

CTV News - How Canada Plans to Celebrate

Coronation Celebrations in Toronto

Coronation Celebrations in Ontario

Coronation Celebrations in Alberta

Coronation Celebrations in Saskatchewan

Coronation Celebrations in Halifax 

Coronation Celebrations in Newfoundland

 Coronation Celebrations in PEI

 Coronation Celebrations in British Columbia


The Empire Club of Canada Presents:

For King and Canada: An Evening to Honour the Coronation of His Majesty King Charles III

 Wednesday, 3 May 2023. Video Online.

Coronation Day, Saturday, 6 May 2023

 Official Government of Canada Indoor Event

144 Wellington Street (Macdonald Building)


10:00 a.m. Unveiling of royal symbols for the reign


Government House (Rideau Hall), Ottawa

Saturday May 6 – Sunday May 7, 2023

Grounds open to the public

Music by Central Band of the Canadian Forces


Peace Tower, Parliament Hill, Ottawa

Saturday May 6 – Sunday May 7, 2023

Peace Tower illuminated in emerald green in Honour of the Coronation


Queen’s Park, Toronto

Saturday May 6, 2023

Outdoor event by Government of Ontario                                                                                       

with Premier and Speaker presen.

A Fun Royal Fair

11:15 a.m.  -  Flag raising, 21-gun salute

12:00 noon – 6:00 p.m.  


Coronation Park

Saturday May 6, 2023

 711 Lakeshore Blvd W, Toronto

1:30 p.m.  Ceremonial Tree planting 

by Toronto City Council to mark the Coronation


St James Cathedral 

Saturday May 6, 2023

106 King St E, Toronto

Coronation Concert 

7:30 p.m.        Admission: $25.00

email: Bookings@StJamesCathedral.ca


Sunday, 7 May 2023

You are invited by the City of Peterborough, Salvation Army and Canadian Royal Heritage Trust to a

Coronation Celebration

Sunday, 7 May 2023

the day following the crowning of Their Majesties King Charles III and Queen Camilla

Salvation Army Citadel

219 Simcoe Street

Peterborough, Ontario

10:00 a.m. Special Service

12 noon   Royal Luncheon

Join Peterborough area MP, MPP, Mayors, Warden,

First Nations Chiefs, Councillors

UE Loyalists to celebrate this happy event

Display of Royal Memorabilia, Royal stories by

Jane Ann Thompson-McCaw, CRHT Trustee in Peterborough

Admission: Donation or Non-Perishable to

Salvation Army Breakfast Programme

His Majesty's Christmas Message, December 2023.

Many of the festivals of the great religions of the world are celebrated with a special meal. A chance for family and friends to come together across generations; the act of sharing food adding to conviviality and togetherness. For some, faith will be uppermost in their hearts. For others, it will be the joy of fellowship and the giving of presents

It is also a time when we remember those who are no longer with us and think also of those whose work of caring for others continues, even on this special day. This care and compassion we show to others is one of the themes of the Christmas story, especially when Mary and Joseph were offered shelter in their hour of need by strangers, as they waited for Jesus to be born.

Over this past year my heart has been warmed by countless examples of the imaginative ways in which people are caring for one another—going the extra mile to help those around them simply because they know it is the right thing to do: at work and at home; within and across communities.

My wife and I were delighted when hundreds of representatives of that selfless army of people—volunteers who serve their communities in so many ways and with such distinction—were able to join us in Westminster Abbey for the Coronation earlier this year. They are an essential backbone of our society. Their presence meant so much to us both and emphasised the meaning of Coronation itself: above all, a call to all of us to serve one another; to love and care for all.

Service also lies at the heart of the Christmas story—the birth of Jesus who came to serve the whole world, showing us by his own example how to love our neighbour as ourselves. Throughout the year, my family have witnessed how people of all ages are making a difference to their communities. This is all the more important at a time of real hardship for many, when we need to build on existing ways to support others less fortunate than ourselves.

Because out of God’s providence we are blessed with much, and it is incumbent on us to use this wisely. However, service to others is but one way of honouring the whole of creation which, after all, is a manifestation of the divine. This is a belief shared by all religions. To care for this creation is a responsibility owned by people of all faiths and of none. We care for the Earth for the sake of our children’s children.

During my lifetime I have been so pleased to see a growing awareness of how we must protect the Earth and our natural world as the one home which we all share. I find great inspiration now from the way so many people recognise this—as does the Christmas Story, which tells us that angels brought the message of hope first to shepherds. These were people who lived simply amongst others of God’s creatures. Those close to nature were privileged that night.

And at a time of increasingly tragic conflict around the world, I pray that we can also do all in our power to protect each other. The words of Jesus seem more than ever relevant: ‘do to others as you would have them do to you.’ Such values are universal, drawing together our Abrahamic family of religions, and other belief systems, across the Commonwealth and wider world. They remind us to imagine ourselves in the shoes of our neighbours, and to seek their good as we would our own.

So on this Christmas Day my heart and my thanks go to all who are serving one another; all who are caring for our common home; and all who see and seek the good of others, not least the friend we do not yet know. In this way, we bring out the best in ourselves. I wish you a Christmas of ‘peace on Earth and goodwill to all’, today and always.

Arthur Bousfield

Royal Family Who Lived in Canada   
For nearly two and a half centuries  – four different calendar ones – various members of the Royal Family lived part of their lives and made their home in Canada.  Brief or prolonged, these periods were of three types: official appointment, duty with the forces or simply private sojourns and visits.  Residences and private stays are to be distinguished from tours, though they sometimes overlapped as for example when the particular members made tours as part or independent of their official duties or took holidays during tours. This list does not include tours by Sovereigns or individual members of the Royal Family but only residences, other stays or holidays.  They show the depth and complexity of the Royal Family’s involvement in Canada life, a relationship that influenced Canada and Canadians as well as the Royal Family members themselves.  There is no legal definition of the Royal Family.  It can be treated in different ways. Most obviously it is the family of the Sovereign and those who are in the order of succession.  For the purpose of this record of Royal Family members who lived in Canada it is defined in the widest sense: individuals popularly known to be relations of the Monarch

1786 - 1787 and 1788 - 1789   H.R.H. Prince WILLIAM-HENRY later King William IV.  The Prince was the third son of king George III.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: ON DUTY WITH THE ROYAL NAVY.  

Arrival of Prince William-Henry in 1786 made the Royal Family one of the earliest families to call Canada home.  The Prince entered the Royal Navy in 1779 at age fourteen.  Early service took him to the West Indies and in 1781 he arrived at the City of New York when the Province of New York was still under the sovereignty of his father King George III and in control of the royal forces. The city of itself was crowded with Loyalist refugees from the American Revolution who had lost their homes, property and livelihood at the hands of the rebels.  George Washington in command of the rebel forces approved a plan to kidnap the young Prince but the scheme never came off.  

In the spring of 1786 Prince William-Henry arrived in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia in command of the frigate H.M.S. Pegasus.  When he returned in the autumn he kept a log which allows us to glimpse eighteenth century Canada through royal eyes.  After a sojourn in St John’s, H.R.H. quelled a riot in Placentia and using his authority as a naval Captain presided over a court in the coastal settlement before which several cases were tried.  He also conducted religious services in the Placentia courthouse and commissioned the construction of St Luke’s Church to the cost of which he contributed personally.  The following year he sent the church a set of silver Communion Plate.  The North American Station of the Royal Navy was based in Halifax and the Prince sailed the Pegasus there for a longer stay.  He found Halifax “A very gay and lively place”.  

In the autumn of the following year 1787 the Prince returned to Halifax and from there sailed up the St Lawrence River to Quebec and Montreal in what was called the Province of Canada (Upper and Lower Canada were not created until the following year).  He didn’t go higher than the Montreal area but his presence gave heart to the Loyalists at Cornwall who were busy carving new homes out of the wilderness.  The Prince reported the favourable opinion of the Native people that he formed during this stay to his father King George III.  “The sensations they expressed at my visit” he wrote to the King on 9 October 1787, “were too strong not to be natural; their language was peculiarly pointed in saying they then saw one in whose veins flowed the same blood as in the body of their Great Father in the East, meaning Your Majesty”.  Prince William-Henry’s first posting to North America ended with his return to England in December 1787.  The Prince’s second posting to the North American Station began in July 1788 and lasted until 1789.  

Prince William-Henry’s residence in Canada “established the essential principles that were to characterise the royal presence over the next centuries : Canada was a home for the Royal Family to live in and to serve in, not a foreign land merely to visit; the country was important enough to the Royal Family for its highest ranking members to go there; and by participating in Canadian life in its varied form, the Royal Family would be making Canada royal and themselves Canadian” [Home toCanada : Royal Tours 1786-2010, Arthur Bousfield and Garry Toffoli, p.  29]

Prince EDWARD, Duke of Kent, fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria.  11 August 1791 - January 1794 in Quebec; 10 May 1794 - October 1798 in Halifax; and having been appointed Commander-in-Chief of the King’s Forces in North America 17 April 1799 and created Duke of Kent, was in Halifax 6 September 1799 - 4 August 1800.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: MILITARY DUTY as Colonel of the Royal Fusiliers, 7th Regiment of Foot; 1793 promoted to Major-General; 2 October 1793; and finally appointed Commander-in-Chief of the King’s Forces in North America 17 April 1799.  He retained the post of Commander-in-Chief until 1803. As Prince Edward he made a tour of the defence establishments of Upper Canada 9 June-13 September 1792.  His Royal Highness had planned another such tour and visits to Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick when he was recalled.  

The Duke of Kent’s influence on Canada was considerable.  His greatest moment in Quebec was on 27 June 1792.  Canada had just been divided into Upper and Lower Canada under the Constitutional Act of 1791.  Elections were underway for Quebec – Lower Canada’s – first Legislature.  Hearing news of violence at the poll at Charlesbourg outside Quebec City, Prince Edward immediately made his way to the scene of the disorder.  Mounting the hustings he harangued the crowd invoking the King’s name. “Part then in peace” His Royal Highness urged the crowd, “I urge you to unanimity and accord.  Let me hear no more of the odious distinctions of French and English  You are all his Britannick Majesty’s Canadian subjects”.  In thus subduing the rioters Prince Edward gave a new meaning to the term Canadian which up to that point had meant a French-speaking subject of the King.  Canadian from that point was to embrace both French-speaking and English-speaking inhabitants of the country.   This was a major stage in the development of the concept of Canadian nationality and citizenship.

Through his contacts in the Imperial Government the Duke of Kent, as Prince Edward became during his residence in Nova Scotia, was able to stimulate what was a virtual rebuilding of the provincial capital of Halifax, turning it from a shanty town into the great fortress of the north.  Between 1796 and 1798 he rebuilt the Halifax Citadel, barracks and associated land and harbour defence installations.  He instituted the first telegraph signal system in North America, one of whose stations remained operational until 1926.  He purchased Navy Island as a site for a hospital for infectious diseases and inspired the building of Halifax’s St George’s Church whose unique design he himself chose.  The Duke also endowed Halifax with its most famous landmark, the town clock on citadel hill which continues to this day to mark the passage of time.   Foreseeing the necessity for unity the Duke even suggested a scheme that foreshadowed Confederation.   

The best known of many traces of this productive, imaginative and insightful member of the Royal Family who made his home in Canada is of course the name of Canada’s Maritime province, Prince Edward Island.  Though Queen Victoria did not know her father who dies shortly after her birth, his Canadian life was made known to her by her mother the Duchess of Kent and through the continuing associations with people in the North American provinces that went on after the Duke of Kent’s death.  


1829 - 1830   Lady MARY FOX., daughter of King William IV and Mrs Jordan.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: TO LIVE WITH HER HUSBAND WHO WAS ON DUTY WITH THE MILITARY.  

Lady Mary was the daughter of His Majesty King William IV.  From 1789 to 1811, King William IV had an open common-law relationship with the popular Irish stage beauty Dorothy Bland known as Mrs Jordan in her profession as an actress.  The couple had ten children, all readily acknowledged by their affectionate father.  After King George III created his son, His Royal Highness Prince William-Henry as Duke of Clarence and St Andrews on 20 May 1789, the Duke devised the surname Fitzclarence for his natural children from his title of Clarence.  Fitz comes from the old French meaning “son of” and as a patronymic was applied to daughters as well as sons.  In doing this the Duke of Clarence was following a long standing royal practice of designating the illegitimate offspring of Kings and Princes in a way that would indirectly show their birth.  Henry VIII and Charles II had so designated illegitimate sons with the surname Fitzroy, “roy” being French for King – thus, the son of the King                                                                                        

Mary Fitzclarence was the second daughter of the Duke of Clarence and Mrs Jordan.  She was described as “a fine looking, brown girl with a pleasant countenance and manners“.  Mary Fitzclarence married Colonel Charles Richard Fox in 1834.  In September 1829 the 34th Regiment of Foot of which her husband was commanding officer was ordered to Nova Scotia.  Mary Fox accompanied the Colonel to Halifax.  Throughout her time in Nova Scotia, Mary was plain Mrs Fox.  Illegitimate children of monarchs have no right of succession to the Throne or any other status than what they possess in right of their husband.  Just the same, everyone knew that Mrs Fox, the former Mary Fitzclarence, was the daughter of the Duke of Clarence, Heir Presumptive to the Throne - the very Prince William-Henry who had been the first member of the Royal Family to step on Canadian soil in 1786 and reside there during periods of naval service.  Moreover, the long residence of Prince Edward the Duke of Kent and the next brother of Clarence had created an expectation and hope in the Canadas and the Maritimes that members of the King’s Family would live among them for at least some period of their lives.  Presence of members of the next generation of their Monarch’s family even if they were illegitimate ones could not help but create interest and excitement and reinforce feelings of monarchical loyalty. 

 While she was in Nov Scotia everything changed for Mary Fox.  On 20 June 1820 her uncle King George IV died and her father the Duke of Clarence ascended the Throne as King William IV.  The new King wished to have his family about him.  The Royal Family was then small in size and His Majesty needed the support of his children in his new role as Monarch.  The King soon had Colonel Fox transferred and he and Mrs Fox, who originally intended to remain in Nova Scotia until July and then travel in the United States before returning to the United Kingdom, went back to London in September 1830.  The following year saw a further alteration in the amorphous position of this daughter of the King.  On 24 May 1831 William IV by Royal Prerogative granted to his illegitimate sons and daughters, apart from the two who had attained a higher rank through marriage, the title and precedence of the younger issue of a Marquis.  Mrs Fox thereby became Lady Mary Fox. 



  Lady Amelia Fitzclarence was the youngest of the five daughters of King William IV and Mrs Jordan.  In 1830 she married Lucius Cary, Viscount Falkland.  When Viscount Falkland was appointed Governor of Nova Scotia by Queen Victoria in 1840, his wife went there to take up residence with him at Government House in Halifax.   They lived in the province for just over six years.  Not having been instructed by London to put cabinet government into effect, Lord Falkland attempted to find a middle way in governing Nova Scotia, which inevitably brought him into conflict with the reformers under the leadership of the intemperate Joseph Howe, so his regime was not the success he had hoped it would be.  Lady Falkland was beloved and respected in her own right, winning many hearts through her great concern and kindness towards the poor.  Lord and Lady Falkland left Nova Scotia in August 1846.  Falkland Ridge in Nova Scotia perpetuates the memory of this daughter and son-in-law of the King.



The long three month long tour of the Crown’s North American provinces made by the Prince of Wales in 1860 is included among the royal residences in Canada because it was referred to by Queen Victoria in the Speech from the Throne when she opened Parliament in 1861 as her son’s “residence” in not “tour” of British North America.  The “residence” was the reply of the Sovereign to the invitation in 1859 of the Parliament of the Province of Canada to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, H.R.H. The Prince Consort and all the Members of the Royal Family to open the Victoria Bridge in Montreal and “tour” the province.  The Queen declined but sent the Prince of Wales instead two years later.  

The Prince’s “residence” played an important role in paving the way for confederation which took place seven years later.  His visits to all of the provinces was a dramatic demonstration of the common allegiance all the jurisdictions had to Queen Victoria.  A demonstration that they were the “true north strong and free” as the poet Tennyson characterised them in words that were to find their way into the national anthem O Canada.


1861, 1878   Prince ALFRED, later Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria.  PURPOSE: APPOINTED TO THE NORTH AMERICAN STATION IN HALIFAX WHILE SERVING IN THE ROYAL NAVY. 

H.R.H. The Prince Alfred later Duke of Edinburgh entered the Royal Navy in 18?  He was attached to its North American Station in 1861.  Halifax was the summer headquarters of the North American Station and the naval dockyard near St George, Bermuda the winter one.   (Following the War of 1812 the station was known for a period as the North American and Lakes of Canada Station.)   Service of the third son of Queen Victoria on the North American Station lasted five weeks in the course of it he was in Halifax and other parts of the Maritimes, Newfoundland and Canada East.  It was perhaps past service that brought about Prince Alfred’s assignment as Captain of H.M.S. Black Prince in November 1878 to escort the S.S. Sarmatian bearing the Marquis of Lorne and Princess Louise to Canada to take up the post of Governor-General.   Prince Alfred landed first and headed the welcoming party in Halifax for the Lornes when they stepped ashore.  This family reunion in Canada was a very happy occasion for Princess Louise.  


August 1869-July 1870 – Prince ARTHUR later Duke of Connaught.  PURPOSE:  ON DUTY WITH HIS REGIMENT STATIONED IN MONTREAL

Prior to joining the detachment of his regiment the Rifle Brigade in Montreal, Prince Arthur spent eight weeks touring Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario.  Early in 1870 he visited the United States being received in Washington by President Ulysses S. Grant.  Back in Montreal he left the city nn a few days to attend the opening of Parliament in Ottawa, the first member of the Royal Family to do so.  “Most anxious am I to consider for the time being Montreal as my home” Prince Arthur wrote, “and to lose no opportunity to lose no opportunity of becoming full acquainted with its institutions, its people, and its commerces.  The selection of Montreal as my residence is sufficient proof of the confidence Her Majesty [Queen ictoria] places in the devotion of her city to her throne”.  

The Fenians attacked Canada during the spring and Prince Arthur went south with his regiment to defend the Canadian border.  He took part in the Battle of Eccles Hill near Montreal on May 25th.  The Prince wrote that he had difficulty in preventing his troops from firing while the Fenians were still on the American side of the border but that once they crossed, “We opened fire and they rapidly broke up”.  


23 November 1878 - 27 October 1883    JOHN CAMPBELL, Marquis of Lorne, son-in-law of Queen Victoria.  PURPOSE: OFFICIAL APPOINTMENT AS GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF CANADA.

The Lornes’ appointment to Rideau Hall can only be compared in its effect to the fruitful residence of Princess Louise’s maternal grandfather the Duke of Kent in Canada in the last decade of the eighteenth century.  The Marquis as Queen Victoria’s son-in-law – married to her fourth daughter Princess Louise - satisfied the continued craving of Canadians for a member of the Royal Family living among them and the young couple’s combined talent, artistic and scientific interests, unconventual good humour and enthusiasm sparked almost singlehandedly a cultural flowering in the young Dominion of Canada which was just ten years old when they arrived.  


28 November 1878 - October 1879; February - 31 July 1880; 4 June 1882 - 27 October 1883   H.R.H. Princess LOUISE, Marchioness of Lorne.  PURPOSE: ON DUTY AS WIFE OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL The MARQUIS OF LORNE, AND CHATELAINE OF RIDEAU HALL.  Unfortunately the Princess had a sleighing accident in Ottawa on 14 February 1880 on her way from Rideau Hall to the Houses of Parliament where she was to hold a Drawing Room.  The accident was a serious one but unwisely minimised to the press with the result that the public did not have appreciate its extent.  H.R.H.’s recovery took a long time and necessitated her absence from Canada.  Though curtailed her royal role of leadership was not abandoned.  In September 1882 Princess Louise and Lord Lorne went to British Columbia to help allay separatist sentiment which was growing in the province over delay in completing the Canadian Pacific Railway.  They stayed there until 7 December.  On September 28 Lorne and the Princess went to New Westminster.  They were welcomed by three thousand indigenous.  The wife of the Chief of the Seebeldts who presented the couple with gifts said afterwards that the Princess was the first white woman who had ever offered to shake hands with her.  


May - July 1880   H.R.H. Prince Leopold subsequently Duke of Albany, youngest son of Queen Victoria.  PURPOSE: PRIVATE STAY WITH HIS SISTER PRINCESS LOUISE AND BROTHER-IN-LAW LORD LORNE AT GOVERNMENT HOUSE IN OTTAWA.  Three days after Prince Leopold’s arrival he and Princess Louise set out on a private tour of the United States.  It was on this holiday that the American press referred to them cheekily as “Vic’s Chicks”.  They went first to Toronto where together they visited patients at the Toronto General Hospital and toured its new Eye and Ear Infirmary.  From there they went to Niagara Falls and then on to visit Chicago.  The two royalties returned to Canada and went to Quebec on 11 June for salmon fishing on the Cascapedia River where Lord Lorne built a log cabin called Cascapedia Cottage for his wife.  Unfortunately Prince Leopold had a fall which resulted in a haemophilic seizure forcing the royal party to return to Quebec.  


Summer 1900   H.H. Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, Princess Aribert of Anhalt, granddaughter of Queen Victoria.  Her mother was Princess Helena the Queen’s third daughter.  PURPOSE: On the point of a nervous breakdown the Princess was advised by her doctors to make a sea voyage and change of scene.  Her Highness had had a marriage arranged for her in 1891 with Prince Aribert of Anhalt but her husband was indifferent to her.  That sadness added to grief over the death of her brother serving with the Imperial Forces in the Boer War and the anti-British feeling she was subjected to in Berlin produced a crisis in her life.  The Princess chose Canada to effect a cure to her psychological and physical ailment.  She sailed to New York and from there went to Ottawa where she made a stay with the Governor General, Lord Minto and his wife.  The Governor General arranged a railway car on a train for the Princess to cross the prairies to the Rocky Mountains and from there to Vancouver.  On the eve of her departure she received a telegram from her father-in-law Friederich I, Duke of Anhalt ordering her to return to Dessau.  This was immediately followed by a cable from Queen Victoria ordering her to return to her.  On arri al in the United Kingdom she learned that her father-in-law had exercised his sovereign authority to divorce her from her husband.


11 / 13 October 1911-March 1913; October 1913-16 October 1916    H.R.H. The DUKE OF CONNAUGHT (Prince Arthur), third son of Queen Victoria, brother of King Edward VII and uncle of King George V.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE:  OFFICIAL APPOINTMENT AS GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF CANADA.

Sadly the Connaught viceroyalty was deflected from its otherwise normal course by the outbreak of the First World War.  The Duke helped raise the Second Contingent of 15,000 men of the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the conflict and devoted much time to building national morale in Canada while his daughter became the inspiration and focus of the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry raised in 1914 and destined to become one of Canada’s most famous military units.  To assist dependents of those on active service the Duke organised the Canadian Patriotic Fund and was both its president and chairman of the executive committee.  One of H.R.H.’s last acts was to lay the cornerstone of the new Centre Block of the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa on 1 September 1916 to replace the one destroyed in the terrible fire earlier that year.  

Because the Duchess of Connaught’s health was poor, her daughter Princess Patricia often had to take her place at official functions.  This brought the pretty young vivacious sports-loving Princess to the fore and she became wildly popular especially with young Canadians.  During the Duke’s time as Governor General, upgrading and expansion took place at Government House.  A grand façade inspired by a similar addition to Buckingham Palace was added to Rideau Hall incorporating the King’s Royal Arms (claimed to be the largest in the Commonwealth) on the pediment.  

In a Toronto speech just before he left office, H.R.H. recalled the period when he had lived in Canada.  “I should not like you to think that I am a relatively new Canadian.  In coming back I came to a country which I knew fairly well and which had already shown me the greatest kindness.”


13 October 1911 - March 1913; October 1913 - 16 October 1916 -  DUCHESS OF CONNAUGHT (Princess Louise), daughter of Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia and wife of the Duke of Connaught.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: SHARING HER HUSBAND’S APPOINTMENT AS GOVERNOR-GENERA OF CANADA.


Once established in Canada, Princess Patricia threw herself into war work with the Canadian Red Cross.  The Princess provided an unusual romantic episode for Rideau Hall by falling in love with and eventually marrying her father’s Royal Navy Aide-de-Camp, Lieutenant-Commander (later Admiral) the Hon. Alexander Ramsay.  After she returned to the United Kingdom in 1916 Princess Patricia was active in the Maple Leaf Club for Canadian soldiers in London.  


16-21 and 25-30 September 1923.  H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES later King Edward VIII and Duke of Windsor lived at the E.P. Ranch, the four thousand acre Alberta property he had purchased during his long 1919 tour of Canada.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: THE MAIN PURPOSE WAS TO INSPECT AND ENJOY HIS RANCH DURING A MONTH’S PRIVATE VISIT TO CANADA.  The Prince travelled under the very thin disguise of being “Lord Renfreew” one of his secondary titles.

 “I came to Canada as a Canadian in mind and spirit” the Prince of Wales told the people of Calgary on his 1919 tour.  “I regard myself as belonging to Great Britain and to Canada in exactly the same way” he said again.  “We belong to Canada and the other dominions just as much as we do to the UK” he wrote to his mother Queen Mary.  This belief and his view that western Canada was the country of the future led him to purchase the small EP Ranch at High River Alberta for $50,000.  At the Ranch the Prince was able to escape completely from the intrusions of reporters and the curiosity seeking public in his life.

The Prince kept in regular touch with the manager of the EP Ranch especially about building up the stock.  His biographer Philip Ziegler points out that H.R.H. took particular pride in the excellence of his longhorns.  The EP Ranch proved important to western Canada.  Through it the Prince of Wales introduced new stock from the royal estates in the UK which when disseminated improved the strains of livestock in Alberta and Saskatchewan.  The Canadian Government regarded the EP Ranch as an asset to Canada’s international image. During this residence at the EP, H.R.H. sawed wood, stooked oats, chopped sunflowers, filled the silo, rounded up cattle, engaged in hay-making, painted the barns and even mucked out the cow house.


27 September – 1 October 1924, THE PRINCE OF WALES, later King Edward VIII and Duke of Windsor. PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: REST AND ENJOYMENT OF HIS RANCH ON THIS TWO-MONTH PRIVATE STAY IN CANADA.  BUT THE YOUNG PRINCE BECAME CAUGHT IN NEW YORK SOCIETY ON HIS WAY TO THE RANCH, LIMITING HIS TIME THERE.  “So after all you are only spending a week on your Ranch, what a pity when I thought that was the raison d’etre for your going out”, wrote Queen Mary to her son.  As it happened, H.R.H. had flu the entire time he was at the EP.  The EP Ranch was the only property the Prince of Wales owned in his own right as he constantly emphasised.  During this stay the first sale of cattle and sheep took place at the EP.

 10 - 15 August 1927.  H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES, later King VIII and Duke of Windsor, made a private stay at the E.P. Ranch during his official visit to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Canadian Confederation.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: REST AND ENJOYMEGNT OF HIS RANCH ON THIS PRIVATE STAY IN CANADA. The Prince’s third brother Prince George the future Duke of Kent accompanied the Prince of Wales on the tour and stayed at the EP Ranch too as his guest.  


20 June 1940 – March 1946   THE EARL OF ATHLONE (until 1917 he was H.S.H. Prince Alexander of Teck), brother of Queen Mary.  Their mother H.R.H. The Princess Mary of Teck was a granddaughter of King George III.  Their father the Duke of Teck (Francis) belonged to a morganatic branch of the German Royal House of Wurttenberg.  Lord Athlone was the uncle of King George VI who appointed him Governor-General of Canada. PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: OFFICIAL: APPOINTMENT AS GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF CANADA.

The Earl of Athlone – or Prince Alexander of Teck as he then was – had been told by King George V that he was to succeed the Duke of Connaught as Governor General of Canada in 1914.  He and Princess Alice had all plans to take up the appointment made but the outbreak of World War One changed the situation.  Prince Alexander was of age for active service so the Duke’s time in office was extended instead. And the Prince was given a military appointment  As Princess Alice records, she and her husband “had greatly looked forward to going to Canada”. 

 In 1940 Canadians were pleased to have two members of the Royal Family living among them as Governor-General and Chatelaine at Rideau Hall in the capital during the uncertain and rigorous years of World War Two.    Speaking to the combined Canadian and Empire Clubs 20 January 1941 Lord Athlone said: “.. the Throne … is the keystone of the way of life and system of government, with all its imperfections, we believe to be the best that has yet been devised.  It is ours and we mean to keep it …”.  

20 June 1940 – March 1946   H.R.H. Princess ALICE, Countess of Athlone, only daughter of Queen Victoria’s youngest son H.R.H. the Duke of Albany (Prince Leopold).  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: SHARING HER HUSBAND’S APPOINTMENT AS GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF CANADA. 

Princess Alice was an active and vigorous person possessed of great charm and her visits to the women’s divisions of the forces and to munitions factories and many voluntary organisations during the war years gave her an intimate knowledge of the Canadian scene.  Two personal interests were education and the arts, particularly music.  At Rideau Hall and The Citadel Princess Alice entertained many foreign royalties who because of the disruptions of the Second World War were in temporary or permanent exile.  Many of them were close relatives of the Royal Family.  Among them was a refugee from the First World War, the valiant Empress Zita, widow of Blessed Karl, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary who tried unsuccessfully to end the conflict.

The Princess who was a keen observer and insightful commentator though sometimes outspoken wrote about her Canadian residence in her memoirs For My Grandchildren published years afterwards in 1966.  Her stories and comments are recognised instantly as genuine Canadian experiences.  Soon after the Athlones’ arrival for instance H.R.R. recalled that “We had the Prime Minister and all the Provincial Premiers to dinner.  They had assembled at Ottawa to discuss taxation, but merely agreed to disagree after coming thousands of miles for the conference”.


29 September - 8 October 1941.  H.R.H. THE DUKE OF WINDSOR and Her Grace THE DUCHESS OF WINDSOR at the EP Ranch.  PURPOSE OF VISIT:  PERSONAL: RANCH BUSINESS.  

The fact that the EP Ranch was near the important Turner Valley natural gas and oil field led the Duke of Windsor to prospect for oil himself.  Discovery of oil would help recoup part of the capital invested in the EP.  

1940 – 1946 RICHARD, ELIZABETH and ANNE ABEL-SMITH. Children of Lady MAY ABEL-SMITH, daughter of the Earl of Athlone and H.R.H.. Princesss Alice, Countess of Athlone The Abel-Smiths lived at Government House in Ottawa during the tenure of their grandfather as Governor-General of Cnada.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE:   PRIVATE: TO BE SAFE IN CANADA WITH THEIR GRANDPARENTS DURING WORLD WAR II.   

In the years in Canada, Ricahrd Abel-Smith was a boarder at Trinity College School in Port Hope, Ontario and his sisters were enrolled at the Institut Jeanne D’Arc.  Princess Alice saw her three grandchildren acquire, as she herself expressed it, the “self-reliance natural to Canadian children”.  


1942 - 26 April 1943 - ALASTAIR, 2nd Duke of Connaught, son of Prince Arthur of Connaught and grandson of the 1st Duke of Connaught.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE:  DUTY: APPOINTED HIS EXTRA AIDE-DE-CAMP BY THE EARL OF ATHLONE.  Had a seizure at Government House, Ottawa, fell from a  window into the snow where he was found half frozen and died on the way to the hospital.


1945 - 1946   GERALD LASCELLES, Viscount Lascelles, later Earl of Harewood, eldest son of  H.R.H. The Princess Royal (Mary) only daughter of King George V and Queen Mary.  The Earl of Athlone appointed his great nephew as his Aide-de-Camp at Government House, Ottawa during his two final years living in Canada.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: DUTY: 

The Earl of Harewood recalled his days living in Canada in his recollections The Tongs and the Bones : The Memoirs of the Earl of Harewood  published in 1981.


1947, 1965 - 1 September 1982   LADY IRIS MOUNTBATTEN, youngest great grandchild of Queen Victoria.  Lady Iris was only child of the Marquess of Carisbrooke (previously H.H. Prince Alexander of Battenberg), and granddaughter of H.R.H. Princess Beatrice, Queen Victoria’s youngest daughter. PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE:  PRIVATE: TO LIVE AN ENTIRELY UNOFFICIAL LIFE.  

Lady Iris, a second cousin of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was a bridesmaid at the wedding of H.R.H. The Duke of Kent (Prince George) and H.R.H. Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark.  During World War Two she worked as a nurse’s aide.  She was one of the most photographed debutantes of her day.  She went to live in the United States but moved to Canada after a brush with the law though soon returning south of the border where she taught dance, became an actress and model, hostess of a TV show and did TV commercials.. 

 Lady Iris lost her place in the succession to the Throne by marrying a Roman Catholic which at that time contravened the Act of Succession though she received permission from her cousin King George VI to contract the marriage.  After the marriage broke up she resumed the use of her maiden name by Deed Poll in 1949.  On her third marriage to Canadian actor and broadcaster William Alexander Kemp in 1965 she moved to Toronto permanently and spent the remainder of her life there, dying in the Wellesley Hospital 1 September 1982.  Lady Iris had a son, Robin Alexander Bryan by her second marriage.  Mr Bryan also lived in Toronto.  



Their visit was more a tour of inspection and the Duke and Duchess did not stay at the EP but took up residence in the viceregal suite of the Palliser Hotel in Calgary.  Management and economic changes were decided on as a result of the inspection.  Instead of pedigree shorthorns the EP would henceforth specialise in commercial Hereford cattle.  Further reorganisation occurred in 1956 by which it returned to rearing pedigree stock.  During the visit the Duke also worked on the proofs of his book A King’s Story which was shortly to be published.  The duke became the first person to sign the guest book of the Petroleum Club in Calgary. 

“At this time it is clear the ranch figured largely in the Windsors’ plans, and when their friend Lord Brownlow made an offer for the ranch, it was rejected.  The \duke wrote that he would not sell now, and did not believe he ever would.”  (Prince Charming Goes West : The Story of the E.P. Ranch, Simon M. Evans, Univ. of Calgary Press, 1993, p. 183.).  “It is the only piece of property I’ve ever owned” the Duke reiterated again to the Calgary Herald when asked y a reporter if he was going to sell the EP.  The Duchess told the press that she and the Duke planned to renovate the ranch house of the EP so that they could spend more time there during the summer months and use it as a base for hunting, fishing and local sightseeing.  The Duke spoke about having “a permanent address in Alberta”.



Beginning on 17 March the Prince spent his school break holiday at the farms of two classmates and with his guardian for his residence in Canada, Colonel Frank McEachren in Toronto.  Following the school break H.R.H. returned to Lakefield School where he played the part of Mr Brownlow in the school’s production of Oliver based on Charles Dickens’ Oliver Twist. The Prince left Lakefield College School on 3 June.  After taking part in his mother the Queen’s Silver Jubilee celebrations in London he returned to Lakefield on June 15 to receive the gift of a cedar canoe from the Village of Lakefield before beginning a six weeks’ holiday in other parts of Canada.  The holiday included a three-day tour of Arctic outposts on which he went farther north than any member of the Royal Family to that date and a two-week 1,300 canoe trip down the Coppermine River in the Northwest Territories completed on 28 June.  Prince Andrew returned to the United Kingdom on 30 July after a six months’ residence in Canada.



Recalling the period that he lived in Canada in 1975 H.R.H. said, “On exercises with Her Majesty’s Canadian Forces when I was serving in the Royal Navy [I] found myself in a tent for three weeks in a somewhat inaptly named place called Blissville near Gagetown military base in New Brunswick” .  The more than a month living in Canada also saw the Prince in Nova Scotia and Montreal.  A Canadian officer described the Prince as a “very, very competent pilot”.  During H.R.H.’s informal visit to Montreal he “entertained the crew of an Air Canada plane in which he had been forced down by bad weather at Gander earlier in the year”.


 22 – 27 October 1991 - Toronto, Niagara with Prince and Princess of Wales and Prince William  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE:


23 – 28 March 1998 – T.R.H. The Prince of Wales with Princes William and Harry of Wales.  Vancouver & Whistler.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: SKIING HOLIDAY.




6 September – 3 October 2008  H.R.H. Prince Harry of Wales, Suffield, Alberta.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: ADDITIONAL TRAINING FOR SERVICE IN AFGHANISTAN.


July 2011 through late 2017 Meghan the future Duchess of Sussex spent nine months per year in Toronto.  PURPOSE: PROFESSIONAL WORK AS AN ACTRESS STARING IN THE TV SERIES “SUITS”. 


Between August and October 2016. – H.R.H. Prince Harry of Wales.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE:  MADE THREE TRIPS TO TORONTO TO SEE MISS MEGHAN MARKLE.

26 October – 1 November 2016 – H.R.H. Prince Harry of Wales.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE:  IN TORONTO TO VISIT MISS MEGHAN MARKLE.


 Mid-November 2019  - 6  January  2020: - T.R.H. The Duke (Harry) and Duchess (Meghan) of Sussex.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE: LIVING PRIVATELY ON VANCOUVER ISLAND. 

 7 January 2020 – T.R.H. The Duke and Duchess of Sussex: PURPOSE OF ENGAGEMeNT:. AT CANADA HOUSE, LONDON.  

 9  January-  2 March 2020 – T.R.H. The Duke and Duchess of Sussex.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE:  LIVING PRIVATELY ON VANCOUVER ISLAND.

 128– 14 March 2020 – T.R.H. The Duke and Duchess of Sussex.  PURPOSE OF RESIDENCE:  LIVING PRIVATELY ON VANCOUVER ISLAND.


Garry Toffoli

Canada's Future: Monarchy or Republic?

The decision in 2021 by the former realm of Barbados to become a republic has stirred some commentary regarding its relevance to Canada. In short, there is little or no relevance, as the two countries, other than being part of the Commonwealth of Nations, are so vastly different – different histories, different demographics, different dimensions, different needs. The accession of a new monarch in 2022, King Charles III, has also led some critics of monarchy in Canada and around the Commonwealth to advocate their countries should become republics. Since the question has been raised, it is perhaps worth revisiting the fundamental differences between a monarchy and a republic and why Canada is a monarchy.

Two systemic problems always emerge in discussions of monarchy. Monarchy is treated as an issue. Monarchy is not an issue, it is an option – the issue is: “What form of government should Canada have?” One option is monarchy, the alternative is republic, and both should be analyzed in choosing between them. The second problem is that monarchy is invariably looked at superficially – that it’s about Canada’s British heritage, or tradition, or celebrity. These are aspects but they are not fundamental. 

Monarchy, it must also be remembered, refers to the society itself, not to the Royal Family, the King or even the Crown. A country does not have a monarchy or a republic, or ties to these. It is a monarchy or a republic. Think how absurdly an American would regard a reference to the United States as having ties to the Republic. It is equally absurd to say Canada has ties to the Monarchy. Also, a republic is not synonymous with a democracy. Democracy and dictatorship are different exercises of power; monarchy and republic are different understandings of authority. 

A country has three parts. There is the land, defined by territorial boundaries. There are the people, who inhabit the territory. There is the state. A state is the institutionalization of authority.

Any society should flow from, reflect and reinforce the qualities and characteristics of human life, because societies are humans living together. What are the primary characteristics of all human beings that should be present in the societies they live in? They are free choice, merit (or skills) and birth. 

People have the right to decide how they will live their lives, constrained by some practical realities. Thus, some form of democracy is a fundamental human necessity in the exercise of state power by the political class.

Merit is the ability to develop and realize one’s skills. All people try, or should try, to achieve merit – for their own sake and to contribute to the various societies to which they belong. Judges, civil servants and other officials hold their places, and are accepted by others as doing so, because of the skills they offer. This too falls under the category of state power. 

Democratic societies, whether monarchies or republics, can claim free choice and merit as characteristics, but it is the third characteristic of humans that provides the foundation for authority itself. 

The human species and each human being, before they can exercise free choice and before they can acquire skills, must come into existence. Human existence depends on the hereditary principle of birth. Whether they have great or limited skills, make good or bad choices, people do not need to justify their existence. They exist because they exist, and that fact alone confers worth on them. To reject heredity as a principle is to reject humanity itself. To reject the inclusion of heredity in the identity of the state is to reject the human character of the state.

In a monarchy an abstraction, the state, is vested in a reality, a person, allowing other realities, people, to bring themselves together through a shared personal allegiance to the one person. This humanizes the state. In a republic one abstraction, the state, is vested in another abstraction, The People, to which real people are fused by a covenant. This deifies the state. Monarchists speak of “people” in a country. Republicans speak of “The People” of a country, turning humanity, which is by nature pluralistic, into something singular by artifice or ideology.

But just as humans have a balance of these three characteristics in their nature – hereditary birth, free choice and merit, so a society must have the three in balance – King, politicians, administrators. Because a monarchy has all three, it is a more human society than a republic. It is more complete and more balanced.

A monarch provides a country with a non-partisan embodiment of the state which no elected president, by the nature of the selection, can. One need only look to the United States where half the people refused for four years (2017 to 2021) to accept the elected president as a symbol of the whole country, or even as the legitimate president. This was not just the result of the personality and policies of the previous incumbent, Donald Trump, though he may have highlighted the problem. Now many Republicans reject Joe Biden as a legitimate president. As the Democrats did for four years, the Republicans are doing for four years. If the presidents were just heads of government and not also heads of state, this would not be the serious issue it is.

A modern republic, by its nature, politicizes and makes partisan all aspects of society, a trend that has accelerated in the twenty-first century through social media. Not all aspects of society should be politicized or partisan, yet all republican democracies veer in that direction. An elected president is a focus of power, and while power may tend to corrupt, there is no doubt it absolutely politicizes and is always partisan. The alternative of an appointed ceremonial president, and an elected prime minister, may, superficially, be seen as non-partisan for the former, but it has two handicaps. It is impossible for the person or entity making the presidential appointment to be truly non-partisan itself because that person, or the members of that entity, have to be elected or selected. The “non-partisan” president is more often than not regarded as the partisan agent of the appointing body, not truly non-partisan. An appointed president who is innocuous enough not to be controversial is, invariably, too innocuous to be inspiring or even relevant to a country.

The only truly non-partisan, non-political process for choosing the successful embodiment of the state is the hereditary process – the “accident of birth” as Prof. Jacques Monet has described it; that is, an hereditary monarch, occupying the position of authority in a country, while leaving the elected political figures to occupy their legitimate positions of power, where democracy and partisanship properly should dwell. Constitutional monarchies developed that necessary separation of authority and power over the past two centuries. Twenty-first century republics are oddly archaic, still clinging to the discredited eighteenth century belief that authority and power must be united in the same entity or source.

Canadian historian W.L. Morton explained that a fundamental difference between the United States and Canada is that, as a republic, the United States is united at the bottom by a covenant. Morton wrote that as a people of the covenant, this means three things for Americans: “The first is a need for a measure of uniformity; the covenant is among the like-minded. The second is that the covenant to a degree cuts the covenanted off from the uncovenanted. Third, the covenant implies not only uniformity and isolation, but also a mission. America is a messianic country periodically inspired to carry the republic into other lands. ... If the mission is denied, if the messianic complex is thwarted, then occurs that search for the domestic traitor, the uncovenanted.” 

By contrast, Morton noted that “the moral core of Canadian nationhood is found in the fact that Canada is a monarchy and in the nature of monarchical allegiance. As America is united at the bottom by the covenant, Canada is united at the top by allegiance. Because Canada is a nation founded on allegiance and not on compact, there is no process in becoming Canadian akin to conversion, there is no pressure for uniformity, there is no Canadian way of life. Anyone ... can be a subject of the Queen and a citizen of Canada without in any way changing or ceasing to be himself. This is a truth so fundamental that it is little realized and many, if not most, Canadians would deny its truth, but it is central to any explanation or understanding of Canadian nationhood.”

Four interrelated types of covenants underpin modern republics, not only the United States but around the world – ethnicity/race, language, religion, ideology. Republics have at least one of these covenants as the basis of their unity. Some monarchies have had one or more of the covenants as well, but they are not essential to the unity or the survival of the monarchical state, as they are to republics. When the republican covenants come to an end, the countries break up, peacefully or through civil war. 

Without the unity provided by totalitarian communism, after the fall of the Soviet bloc in the late twentieth century, Yugoslavia descended into civil war and chaos, and the current several ethnic Balkan countries of today. Czechoslovakia, though it moved into democracy, found there was no sustaining covenant between the Czechs and the Slovaks, so it too broke up, albeit peacefully, into ethnic republics. These republics had no monarchical allegiance at the top to hold them together. Similarly, when personal allegiance is ended in a monarchy, the monarchy will fall apart. The forced break up of Austria – Hungary by the victorious Allies through World War One propaganda, and the termination of Germany as a monarchy, also under Allied pressure, produced totalitarian republicanism in their place. Sir Winston Churchill eloquently explained this “gave the opening for the Hitlerite monster to crawl out of its sewer on to the vacant thrones.”

The modern democratic republics of Europe, which Canadian republicans suggest we could emulate, are based on the covenants of ethnicity and language. France, Germany, Italy, Ireland are the countries of the ethnic and linguistic French, Germans, Italians and Irish. Faced with mass immigration from outside Europe in the twenty-first century, the covenants of these republics are being challenged as never before and may not hold. The monarchies of Europe are facing the same challenges in the twenty-first century as European republics, of course, but the countries are based on personal allegiance, so their prospects are better.

To return to Morton’s comparison of Canada and the United States, how has and does the latter, arguably the country most like Canada except for the monarchical / republican divide, address the four covenants?

In theory the United States is not based on an ethnic or racial covenant, though significant elements in the country, historically and today, have attempted to establish such a basis. It has been, and remains, a society embracing immigration, with disputes mostly over legal and illegal variants. Nor does it have a covenant of a single religion, though in a way that makes the United States exceptional among countries, as Americans themselves claim, the United States has established a secular religion consisting of a unique ideology. 

Immediately following the American Revolution the United States did establish a covenant of language – the English language. Despite a large German population in the eighteenth century, the new republic consciously rejected recognizing the German, or any other, language. Even with the absorption of large Hispanic communities through conquest in the nineteenth century, Spanish has not been accepted as an official language, even though Hispanics are almost as large a percentage of the American population as French Canadians are of the Canadian population, and were once distinct communities in North America before they were conquered.

Ideology is the principal American covenant. What is the ideology of the United States? The American political scientist Louis Hartz described the country as a liberal fragment of European society transported to the New World, which isolated itself after the American Revolution from ideologies existing, developing and evolving in other parts of the world. What Hartz called fragmentation is what most Americans call and praise as American exceptionalism – that they are not like other countries. 

Americans turned their history into this unique ideology and infused American secular institutions with religious imagery and sentiment. The United States is “a shining City on the Hill”, “a Promised Land” (the title of Barack Obama’s memoir). Their public institutions are frequently referred to as “sacred”. The American Flag is accorded the deference and protocol that originated with consecrated icons of the Church. Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln are revered as an American Holy Trinity – Father, Spirit and sacrificed Redeemer. Shrines, more than mere statues, were built to honour them.

For almost two and a half centuries this covenant has worked well for the United States as it built and sustained its identity as a republic and became a world power, with the obvious and critical exception of the 1861-1865 civil war and its repercussions that still linger today. But the American consensus on the covenant of the country and its history is breaking down. Many Americans no longer wish to improve the covenant, they are rejecting it altogether.

Most Canadians incorrectly view the divisions in the United States as political disputes between ordinary political parties, as they would be in Canada. The turmoil is more akin to a religious war. Trump was not the cause of this division but a product and expression of it. Trump’s supporters and his opponents are equally possessed by the imperative to either perpetuate the existing covenant or to establish new ones, not merely new policies. They see each other not just as political opponents but as the uncovenanted. 

“If the mission is denied,” W.L. Morton noted, “if the messianic complex is thwarted, then occurs that search for the domestic traitor, the uncovenanted”. Morton wrote that more than half a century ago. He could have written it about Americans today. Unity in the United States will only be restored if and when Americans agree once again on what the covenant that unites them at the bottom will be.

Why does this matter for Canada? It matters because Canada has none of the four bases of a successful covenant, and thus has been, and can only be, united by allegiance, as Morton explained. Nor is there such a thing as Canadian exceptionalism, or the myth of such, upon which to construct a society. Canada’s secular institutions have remained secular and there exist no grounds to attribute divine characteristics to secular accomplishments. A republic may work for some countries, such as the United States, but it cannot work for Canada. Here one is faced with the historical and logical fact that the arguments for republicanism are the arguments against the existence of Canada. There can be republicanism in the northern half of North America or there can be Canada. There cannot be both. Human nature and history have made that impossible.

Like the United States, Canada is a country of immigration and does not have an ethnic or racial covenant. Unlike the United States, it has also recognized communitarian rights within the country, the so-called Canadian mosaic compared to the American melting pot. This goes beyond ethnic diversity. In Canada three distinct political societies are recognized – English Canada, French Canada and, albeit belatedly though based on the historic Royal Proclamation of 1763, indigenous nations. In religion, though Anglicanism was officially established in parts of British North America, there was always a duality of Anglicanism and Catholicism, due to the ethnic duality of English and French. Today that has evolved into extensive religious diversity and secularism, not a secular religion fabricated from Canadian history. Canada is an officially bilingual country, but even before the enactment of the Official Languages Act in 1969, bilingualism was recognized in the Constitution for Parliament and Dominion courts. There has always been bilingualism in many aspects of Canadian public life, including the interactions of the Royal Family in Canada.

History has denied Canada a covenant of ethnicity/race, religion or language, even if it wished one. That leaves ideology. But, unlike the United States, Canada does not have a covenant of ideology either, though political parties in Canada are not immune to the temptation of forcing their ideology on others. That is where a further role of the King comes into play. Another Canadian academic, Frank MacKinnon, explained that the Monarch’s importance is not that he or she wields power but that the Monarch, by holding authority, denies any political party or politician the right to impose its ideology on all others when exercising legitimate power while temporarily in office.

To convert Canada into a republic at least one of the four covenants must be established. That is the fact republicans in Canada ignore. They assume that Canada can change the structure of its state while otherwise remaining the same. It can’t. One major change would be the inevitable secession of Quebec. The distinct Province of Quebec can survive and flourish within a monarchy based on allegiance not covenant. An independent Republic of Quebec might survive in North America, based on the covenant of a single language and ethnicity. The Province of Quebec as a distinct society could not survive within a Republic of Canada and would either have to leave or wither. The Czechs and the Slovaks have understood that dynamic. The Americans understood it. Louisiana was a distinct society before it was absorbed into the United States. It is not today.

What of the status of First Nations? Republicans claim that all the duties of the Crown guaranteed to the First Nations would automatically be assumed by a republic. It is possible that a republic would assume them, but it would not be automatic and not certain. The argument for certainty is that, as Canada evolved in autonomy and then independence, the duties of the British Crown became the duties of the Canadian Crown. That is true, but the British Crown evolved into the Canadian Crown. If a republic were created, it would be a new authority, not a continuing one. The Supreme Court ruled that the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which recognized and protected First Nations inherent rights, still holds force in Canada. In 1763 not just Canada was covered by the proclamation. The Thirteen Colonies were also governed by it. (The Crown’s protection of First Nations was actually cited in the so-called Intolerable Acts by the rebels that led to the American Revolution.) When the American Republic was created, the Royal Proclamation ceased to have force in the United States. So, recognition of the rights of First Nations would not automatically carry forward in a Canadian republic. It would have to be renegotiated from scratch, and would be faced with the inherent republican bias toward conformity.

In addition, many First Nations in Canada have hereditary chiefs as well as elected chiefs, reflecting the same balance of authority and power concepts and traditions of constitutional monarchy as exist for Canada as a whole. Ending the monarchical identity of Canada would logically require and could only be implemented by eliminating these hereditary chiefs as well as the King of Canada. 

Thus, a Canadian republic could not base itself on a single ethnicity or race, a single language (unless it expelled Quebec and suppressed the rights of Francophone Canadians outside Quebec), or a single religion. It would have to turn to the covenant of creating, and imposing, a new, single ideology on all Canadians, without even the American model of an historical myth to foster it. There would be a vacant throne to be usurped by some uncompromising ideology. No country in the world has ever been completely immune to the dangers that entails. Do Canadians wish to chance what ideology might crawl up on to the vacant Throne of Canada?

Over the past several decades Canada has made a good effort to Canadianize the attributes of the Crown – to ensure the evolution not revolution of our constitutional structure to accommodate and express the reality of Canada’s sovereign independence. That has been good, but some nationalists claim there must be a separate republican head of state, not a monarch shared with other realms. That is not true. Nationalism is not an argument for republicanism; it is, perhaps, an argument for a separate Canadian monarch. If separation is what Canadians desire, the solution is not to overturn Canada’s entire monarchical political structure and replace it with a foreign republican one, but to have succession to the Canadian Throne pass to a different descendant of King Charles III than in Britain. 

The road of a separate monarch, if taken, would address any legitimate nationalist criticism of a shared monarch without undermining and eventually destroying the fundamental foundations of Canadian society. It would also be far simpler constitutionally than establishing a republic. All the necessary constitutional and legal institutions and physical and ceremonial structures for a separate monarch already exist in Canada and there would be no extra cost. Canada is currently a separate monarchy from the United Kingdom. It is a relatively small evolutionary step to a separate monarch, if preferred. Becoming a republic would be a giant revolutionary leap into the abyss.

If the path of a separate monarch were to be followed, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex would be the obvious, available and viable future monarch for Canada. He is the adult next to Prince William in the line of succession. Prince Harry has already chosen a North American life and might well have been still living in Canada if officialdom in Britain and Canada had been more flexible and imaginative in dealing with him than they were. He would probably be more comfortable with a royal role in the less rigid, North American monarchy that is Canada, than he was in the United Kingdom. He is not just a descendant of the recent Canadian and earlier British monarchs of Canada; through his mother, Diana, Princess of Wales, he is a direct descendant of Henri IV of France, the King who founded the House of Bourbon, sent Champlain to this land, and reigned over Canada. Meghan, Duchess of Sussex was born in North America and lived many years in Canada, the Duke for several months. They might well be persuaded to return if they were offered the opportunity to make a meaningful contribution to Canada and prepare themselves for a future royal role in the country. With the appropriate appointment in 2021 of Mary Simon as the first indigenous Governor General to represent the Queen, and now the King, the apogee of non-royal viceregal appointments has been reached. At the end of her tenure in office it would arguably be time to advance the constitutional development of Canada with a designated Canadian royal prince at Rideau Hall, first as permanent Governor General for King Charles III’s reign and subsequently as the next monarch. The address of Rideau Hall is, perhaps prophetically, 1 Sussex Drive. 

Whichever monarchical route Canadians might take – shared monarch or separate monarch – they should remember that the genius of monarchy is that it humanizes the state by vesting it in a person. To focus on the Crown as an abstraction rather than on the Sovereign as a person, as some contemporary monarchists argue, is as dangerous as republicanism itself. Embrace of virtual reality over reality undermines the essential ethos of monarchy – the embodiment of the state in a real person. To believe in the Crown merely as an abstraction is an anti-human perversion of monarchy that would not only fail to preserve Canada as a monarchy but will damage the human quality of Canadian life generally. 

Vincent Massey, Queen Elizabeth II’s Representative as Governor General from 1952 to 1959, said, “During my time in Ottawa, everything possible was done to bring home the place of the Sovereign in our national life.” How to do that properly and most effectively in the future is the challenge Canadians face in the third decade of the twenty-first century.


Garry Toffoli is the author of numerous books and articles on the constitutional structures and history of the Canadian Monarchy. He is Vice-Chairman & Executive Director of The Canadian Royal Heritage Trust.

John McLeod

A Royal Reflection of the Canadian Mosaic

This essay was written in 2012.

Canadians have always been interested in genealogy.  In many First Nations, it determined chiefship or clan membership.  In the nineteenth century, Cyprien Tanguay and E.M. Chadwick published classic compilations of family trees from Québec and Ontario.  The United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada was chartered in 1914 for “the descendants of those families who … sacrificed their homes in retaining their loyalty to the British Crown,” which presupposes knowledge of ancestry. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth II, however, genealogical research has exploded in Canada.  Genealogical societies now exist in every province. When politicians rise to prominence, the media report on their ancestry, and millions of Canadian genealogical records are now available on line.

The census of 2006 found Canada to have 31,241,030 people, with 18,319,580 reporting a single ethnic background, and 12,921,445 of mixed ancestry. As this article shows, the lineage of the Queen, Prince Philip, the Prince of Wales and the late Princess, and the Duke of Cambridge reflects this Canadian mosaic. (For conciseness, the last four will often be called Philip, Charles, Diana, and William).  In the census, 5,881,285 people identified themselves simply as Canadian, with a further 4,317,570 listing Canadian as one of several national origins. This means that a total of 32% of our population regard some or all of their heritage as Canadian (note that because so many of us claim multiple origins, the total of the percentages given in this article far exceeds 100). All of us, from Aboriginals to the newest New Canadians, are entitled to call ourselves “Canadian” on the census. Of the current members of the Royal Family, the Duchess of Cornwall has Canadian roots, being the great-great-great grand daughter of Sir Allan MacNab (died 1862), Prime Minister of pre-Confederation Canada from 1854 to 1856, who was born in what is now Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario.

There are 1,678,235 Aboriginal Canadians (5½ percent of our population). It does not appear that the Royal Family has any Aboriginal Canadian blood, but some of their cousins probably do, perhaps through Isabella, first Lady Strathcona (died 1913), a Métis.

Our largest ethnic group comprises people wholly or partly of English heritage:  6,570,015 (21 percent).  The English trace their roots to the Anglo-Saxons, Germanic tribesmen who settled in Britain.  By the time of Alfred the Great (died 901), the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united under a single English monarch. In 1707, England and Scotland joined in the kingdom of Great Britain, which on the addition of Ireland in 1801 became the United Kingdom.  The Duke of Cambridge is descended from many early Anglo-Saxon kings, and from Alfred and every subsequent English and British sovereign who left children except William IV (died 1837).  The Duke’s other English ancestors include Lady Godiva (11th century); George, Duke of Clarence (died 1478), who as recounted by Shakespeare was drowned in a vat of wine; the British prime minister Charles, second Earl Grey (died 1845); an eighteenth-century plumber named Mr Walsh; and George, fourth Earl of Huntingdon (died 1604), who may have been a kinsman of Mary Arden, mother of William Shakespeare (died 1616). 

5,000,350 Canadians (16 percent) report French ancestry.  The Royal Family is descended from France’s Carolingian (752-987), Capetian (987-1328), and Valois (1328-1498) dynasties. Through Diana, William is descended from Henri IV (died 1610), first king of the Bourbon dynasty and sponsor of Champlain’s voyages.  The Royal Family’s many other French ancestors include the Norman and Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1066 to 1485.

At 4,719,850 (15 percent), Canadians with Scottish ancestry are our third largest community.  The kingdom of Scotland emerged in the ninth century through the fusion of two Celtic peoples, the Picts and the Scots. The Royal Family claims descent from Fergus Mór (died 501), the legendary king of the Scots who came over from Ireland, and his descendant Cináed (died 860) who became king of the Picts, and many later Scottish monarchs including Robert the Bruce (died 1329) and Mary Queen of Scots (died 1587). The late Queen Mother’s father was Scottish, Claude, fourteenth Earl of Strathmore (died 1944), and through him the Queen carries the blood of many leading families of Scotland.

There are almost as many Irish-Canadians as there are Scottish-Canadians: 4,354,155 (14 percent).  Until the twelfth century, there were scores of kingdoms in Ireland, all nominally subject to a High King.  One of the earliest historical kings was Niall Noígíallach, “Niall of the Nine Hostages,” who lived in the fourth or fifth century. His descendants, the Uí Néill (O’Neills), dominated Ireland until their power was broken by Brian Bóroimhe (died 1014), founder of the Ua Briain (O’Briens). In 1169, at the invitation of King Diarmait of Leinster (died 1171), a Norman army from England landed in Ireland.  The Queen Mother was descended from Niall, Brian, and Diarmait, as well as the Norman families of Butler, de Burgh, and Fitzgerald which settled in Ireland after 1169. Over the succeeding centuries, Ireland came under English rule; the Queen Mother was also descended from Aodh Mór Ó Néill, Earl of Tyrone (died 1616), who led the final Irish resistance to the conquest. In 1922, the twenty-six counties of southern Ireland were constituted the Irish Free State, which in 1949 became the Republic of Ireland. Northern Ireland remains part of the United Kingdom. Until 1973 the sovereign was represented in Northern Ireland by governors, the first of whom, James, third Duke of Abercorn (died 1953), was a great-grandfather of Diana’s.

One of every ten Canadians, 3,179,425, claims German heritage. Another 194,255 trace their background to Austria, which until 1866 was one of the German states.  Germany was the core of the Holy Roman Empire, which was founded by Charlemagne (died 814) and lasted until 1806.  The Royal Family is descended from Charlemagne and many later dynasties of Emperors, including the Hohenstaufens (1152-1197, 1215-1250) and Habsburgs (1440-1740, 1745-1806; they also ruled Austria until 1918).  Over time, the German nobles became virtually independent monarchs, and they remained sovereign through the unification of Germany in 1871 until the end of the First World War in 1918. The Royal Family traces its ancestry to the rulers of such German states as Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Württemberg, Baden, Brunswick, Hesse, Lippe, Mecklenburg, and Oldenburg.  Among their other German ancestors are the Münchhausens, the same family as the storyteller Baron Münchhausen (died 1797), and the princes of Thurn and Taxis, who dominated European postal services from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries.

Canadians of Italian origin number 1,445,330 (5 percent).  The first King of Italy was the Royal Family’s ancestor Pepin (died 810).  During the Middle Ages, Italy was divided. The south became the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, founded by the Queen’s ancestor Ruggero I (died 1154).  The centre of the peninsula was ruled by the Pope; Diana was descended from Pope Felix V (died 1451), who before becoming a priest was the married Duke Amadeus VIII of Savoy. Northern Italy was long partitioned into city-states, which came to be dominated by noble families, including Diana’s ancestors the Dorias of Genoa, the Medicis of Florence, and the Viscontis of Milan.  In addition, the Queen is descended from Count Adenolfo of Aquino, brother of St Thomas Aquinas (died 1274).

There are 1,346,510 Chinese-Canadians (4 percent).  A succession of imperial dynasties ruled China until 1911.  The genealogist David Hughes proposed descents for our Royal Family from the Han (206 BC-AD 220), Northern Wei (386-535), Tang (618-907) and Second Zhou (690-705) dynasties.  The descent from the Han and Northern Wei runs through the chiefs of the Göktürks (a Central Asian people) and kings of Persia to the Exilarchs (heads of the Jews of Babylon), and then accepts the identification of the Queen’s ancestor Theuderic of Narbonne with the Exilarch Makhir (see below).  The descent from the Tang and Second Zhou comes through the rulers of the Yenisei Kyrgyz of Siberia and the Mongol emperor Genghis Khan (died 1227).  As will be seen below, Queen Mary may have been descended from Genghis Khan.

The 1,209,090 Ukrainian-Canadians make up 4 percent of our population.  The Queen is descended from many mediaeval Grand Princes of Kiev, now the capital of Ukraine, including St Volodymyr the Great (died 1015), who accepted Christianity, and Volodymyr Monomakh (died 1125), who presided over the Golden Age of Kiev.  Many Ukrainian-Canadians originated in Galicia or Halych, a region now divided between Poland and Ukraine.  The Queen is also descended from Danylo I (died 1264), first king of Halych.

Three percent of Canadians, 1,035,965 people, have Dutch heritage.  Philip’s ancestor William the Silent (died 1584) led the Dutch War of Independence against Spain.  For two centuries, his descendants governed the Dutch Republic, and they have held the throne since the Netherlands became a kingdom in 1815.  Through the Queen Mother, the Royal Family is also descended from Hans Bentinck (died 1709), a nobleman who accompanied our Dutch King William III to England and was created Earl of Portland; and both Diana and the present Duchess of Cornwall are descended from another of William III’s Dutch courtiers, Arnold Joost van Keppel, Earl of Albemarle (died 1718).

There are 984,565 Canadians of Polish origin (3 percent).  Through his mother, William is a direct descendant of Mieszko I (died 992), first historical ruler of Poland, and Kazimierz III (died 1370), one of the country’s greatest monarchs.  In 1386 Kazimierz’s grand-niece Jadwiga married Jogaila (died 1434), the pagan Grand Duke of Lithuania, who converted to Christianity and became King Władysław II of Poland. Władysław and Jadwiga's descendants, the Jagiellons (from the Polish form of Jogaila), ruled Poland and Lithuania until 1572.  The Royal Family is descended from three of the Jagiellon Kings.

Another three percent of Canadians, 962,670 people, trace their roots to India.  While the Royal Family seems not to have any Indian ancestors, it does have cousins of Indian heritage.  For example, the Canadian genealogist Morris Bierbrier has shown that the Gardner family of Uttar Pradesh in India unites the blood of the Queen’s ancestor Edward III and the Indian Emperor Shāh ‘Alam II (died 1806).

The census lists 783,795 Canadians as Black (2½ percent).  The present Royal Family does not have any identifiable Black heritage.  Some years ago, a Belizian-Canadian, Mario de Valdes y Cocom, claimed that George III’s wife Queen Charlotte had inherited noticeably African features from her distant ancestor Madragana, a mistress of King Afonso III of Portugal, who Mr Valdes says was Black.  Unfortunately, there is no evidence that Madragana was Black or that Charlotte had an African appearance.  The Royal Family does, however, have cousins with Black ancestry.  For example, James, Marquess of Hamilton, a second cousin of Diana, is descended from Abram Petrovich Gannibal (died 1781), a Black African courtier of Peter the Great of Russia.

There are 500,600 Russian-Canadians (1.6 percent).  The Queen is descended from many of the Rurikid princes who ruled in Russia from about 862 until 1598.  From 1613 to 1917, Russia was ruled by the Romanov dynasty, which included Philip’s ancestors Peter the Great (died 1725) and Catherine the Great (died 1796).  

470,580 Canadians claim Arab origin (1½ percent), and the Royal Family may be descended from Arab monarchs of Spain.  For example, the Queen’s ancestor Queen Elvira of Sicily (died 1135) was the daughter of the Spanish King Alfonso VI of Castile by his wife Isabella. Some historians have identified Isabella with one Zaida, who was either daughter or daughter-in-law of Muhammad al-Mu’tamid (died 1095), the Arab king of Seville.

Since 1301, the eldest son of the monarchs of England and Britain has generally borne the title of Prince of Wales, creating a special bond between the Royal Family and the 440,965 Welsh-Canadians (1½ percent).  The Welsh are descended from Ancient Britons who dominated much of Great Britain before the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons. The rulers of the three main mediaeval Welsh principalities (Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth) traced their ancestry to the semi-legendary Coel Hen, the “Old King Cole” of the nursery rhyme. Our Royal Family is descended from him and many later Welsh princes, including Rhodri Mawr (the Great) of Gwynedd and Powys (died 878), Hywel Dda (the Good) of Deheubarth (died 950), and Owain Fawr (the Great) of Gwynedd (died 1240), the last important monarch before the English conquest in 1282.  The Royal Family is also descended from the two greatest Welshmen of the fifteenth century, Owain Glyndŵr (died about 1416), who revolted against the English, and Harri Tudur, or Henry Tudor (died 1509), who in 1485 became King Henry VII.

Canadians of Scandinavian heritage include 432,515 with Norwegian ancestry, 334,765 Swedish, and 200,035 Danish.  Through Philip and Queen Alexandra, the wife of Edward VII, the Royal Family is descended from Harald Hårfagre (“the Fair-Haired”) (died about 933), first King of Norway; Olof Skötkonung (died 1033), first King of Sweden; and Gorm den Gamle (”the Old”) (died about 958), first King of Denmark, and almost all the Danish Kings of the House of Oldenburg from 1448 to 1906. 

Iberian-Canadians include 410,850 people of Portuguese heritage and 325,730 Spanish.  Through Diana, William is a descendant of Afonso I (died 1185), first King of Portugal.  Through Edward III’s wife Isabella of France, the Royal Family is descended from García Jiménez, a ninth-century nobleman who became the ancestor of the kings of Castile, León, Aragon, and Navarre, the main Christian states of mediaeval Spain, and from Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (died 1099), called El Cid, one of Spain’s greatest warriors.  The Spanish kingdoms were united by two of Diana’s other ancestors, King Ferdinand of Aragon (died 1516) and Queen Isabella of Castile (died 1504).

316,350 Canadians (1 percent) claim American heritage.  Some were born in the United States, others are men and women whose ancestors have come from the U.S.A. over the last 230 years, and still others are probably descended from Loyalists who settled here after the American Revolution.  The Queen Mother was a descendant of Augustine Warner (died 1674), a leading inhabitant of colonial Virginia and also an ancestor of George Washington.  One could probably trace a connection between the Warners and Virginia Loyalists who settled in Canada, for example the Robinsons. 

There are 315,510 Hungarian-Canadians (1 percent).  Queen Mary, wife of George V, had a Hungarian grandmother, Countess Claudine Rhédey de Kis-Rhéde.  Through her, the Royal Family is descended from Árpád (died about 907), who led the pagan Magyars into central Europe and founded Hungary.  From then until the Hungarian throne fell vacant in 1921, almost all the sovereigns of Hungary were descendants of Árpád, and many of them were ancestors of our Royal Family. 

Another 1 percent of Canadians, 315,120 people, describe their origin as Jewish.  The Royal Family may have Jewish ancestry through Zoltán of Hungary (died 947/8). He married the daughter of one Menumorut, who it has been suggested was a Khazar.  The Khazars ruled the steppes from Ukraine to Kazakhstan, and around the beginning of the tenth century their monarch and many of his nobles adopted Judaism.  If Menumorat was a Khazar, and if his family took part in the conversion, then the Royal Family has Jewish forefathers.  A discredited theory, put forward by the historian Arthur Zuckerman, identifies the Queen’s eighth-century ancestor Theuderic of Narbonne with Makhir, leader of the Jews of Babylon and then Southern France, who was said to be a descendant of the Israelite King David (died about 970 BC).  There are also claims that the Royal Family’s ancestors the Colonnas, a prominent Roman family since the twelfth century, are of Jewish origin.  

No other Canadian ethnic groups reaches one percent of our population.  There are 242,685 Greek-Canadians.  Philip was born in Greece, the son of Prince Andrew of Greece and the grandson of George I (died 1913), the first Greek king of the House of Oldenburg which reigned until 1974.  Philip is also descended from the Komnenos, Doukas, Angelos, Laskaris, and Palaiologos dynasties, which ruled the Greek Byzantine Empire from 1057 to 1453. Then there are 192,170 Romanian Canadians.  Until 1859, Romania was divided into two principalities, Moldavia and Wallachia. Through Queen Mary, the Royal Family is descended from the Bogdanids of Moldavia (about 1363-1668) and the Basarabids of Wallachia (about 1310-1627).  The ancestor of the Basarabids was named Thocomerius; some identify him with Togatemür, great-great-grandson of the Mongol emperor Genghis Khan (died 1227), others with a Slav named Tikhomir.  Be that as it may, the best-known Basarabid was the bloodthirsty Vlad III, called Ţepeş (“the Impaler”) (died 1476), who was called Dracula (“son of the Dragon”) because his father was a Knight of the Hungarian Order of the Dragon.  Bram Stoker took this nickname for the main character of his novel, and Queen Mary was descended from Dracula’s half-brother Vlad IV Călugărul (“the monk”) (died 1495).

135,060 Canadians claim Czech or Czechoslovak ancestry.  The Czech Republic includes the old kingdom of Bohemia.  The first historical ruler of Bohemia was Bořivoj I (died about 889), a direct ancestor of William. Indeed, William can trace his lineage to members of all of the principal dynasties that ruled Bohemia until the kingdom ended in 1918: the Přemyslids, Luxembourgs, Poděbrads, Jagiellons, Wittelsbachs, and Habsburgs.  These include Boleslav I Ukrutný (“the Cruel”) (died 972), brother of St Václav I (died 935) whom we call “Good King Wenceslas.”

And so the Duke of Cambridge is related to both Dracula and Good King Wenceslas.  That may be merely a curiosity, but there is no doubt that our Royal Family’s ancestry makes it a wonderful reflection of the Queen’s Canadian people in this year of her Diamond Jubilee.

Canadian Royal Heritage Award

Prix du patrimoine royal du Canada

The Canadian Royal Heritage Award / Prix du patrimoine royal du Canada recognizes outstanding contributions to preserving, presenting, enhancing or adding to the royal heritage of Canada by public bodies, associations and individuals.  

 The Award was established by the Trust in 2003 to mark its tenth anniversary and is given annually but not limited to one per year.  Nominations for the Award come from institutions and individuals in the royal and heritage field and from the general public.  The nomination form is attached.

Award Recipients 2004 - present (by year)


David Bentley                                                                                           

Professor Alvin Boyd;                                                                            

Carla Conway;                                                                                    

Fairmont Royal York Hotel, Toronto                                         

Elizabeth Horlock                                                                      

Michael Jackson, CVO

l’honorable Serge Joyal

The Monarchist League of Canada 

Mr and Mrs P.A. Woodward Foundation, Vancouver

Laurence Patten; Pictou County Branch, The Monarchist League of Canada

Toronto Branch, The Monarchist League of Canada

Louis Temporale, Jr  

Captain Max Podluzny



 Jane-Anne Thompson-McCaw

Susan Velder



 John Paul Denter, UE 

John Ballergal Wilkes



 Corporation of the City of London, Canada



 Margaret Lillian Kennett



 Christopher Paul McCreery, MVO

Toronto Branch, Royal Heraldry Society of Canada



 Hello!  Canada Magazine



 The Honourable Jason Kenney



 City of Markham, Ontario

“Honour Our 1812 Heroes” Committee 

Robert Scott



 James Shawn Carnes

James Andrew Coyne

Professor Jack Lohman, CBE and The Royal British Columbia Museum 

Rev’d Canon Stanley Sinclair 

Nathan Tidridge





 J. William Galbraith 

The Honourable Peter Gordon Mackay



 Robert Maxwell Morrow

Charles Pachter





 Jane Beecroft

Richard James Fiennes-Clinton 

Lieutenant-Colonel Carl Gauthier, MMM, CD



 Councillor Paul Ainslie 

Helen Keron Beimler

Peter Anthony Mahon

Peter Howard Russell, OC, FRSC


Award Recipients and Achievements 2004 - present (alphabetically)

 Ainslie, Councillor Paul, - 2019                                                                              

             Played a leading role in the restoration and enhancement of Toronto’s Coronation Park,            

             including the Cenotaph and the Royal Oak and Empire Circle, begun in 2018 and

             completed in 2019.

 Beecroft, Jane, - 2018                                                                      

             This doughty warrior for preservation of local history was the first in the heritage 

             community to provide the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust with a regular display facility 

             when it was established.  Almost singlehandedly she saved the old Toll Keeper’s cottage 

             in Toronto.

 Beimler, Helen Keron, - 2019                                                             

             An exemplary volunteer with the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust since it was fo/unded in 

            1994, she set up for meetings, staffed exhibits and shows and made fundraising pies.

 Bentley, David, - 2004                                                                                                

           Established a library of books on royalty and monarchy in the Scout-Guide Museum 

          that he created in Belleville, Ontario – the largest of its kind in Canada.

 Boyd, Professor Alvin, - 2004         

             Convinced the Mayor and Corporation of the City of London, Ontario to name the 

             space in front of the new John Labatt Centre arena / entertainment complex as Golden 

             Jubilee Square in honour of the fiftieth anniversary of the reign of Queen Elizabeth II.

Carnes, James Shawn, - 2013                                                          

            This American citizen, police constable and resident of Joliet, Illinois early developed an 

             interest in Canada’s Monarchy which, though the country’s matrix, he found was 

             under appreciated.  To support it he wrote a stream of letters over decades to Canadian 

             officials urging greater use and visibility of the Crown.

 City of Markham, Ontario, 2012                                                                    

            Given to recognize the achievements of the city’s Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee 

            Committee set up to celebrate the Queen of Canada’s sixty years on the Throne.

Conway, Carla - 2004

           Developed and carried out a programme to distribute new official portraits of Her

          Majesty Queen Elizabeth II to all schools in Newfoundland and Labrador, arranging 

          speakers to present them and talk about Canada’s monarchy.

Corporation of the City of London, Ontario, - 2007                                                  

            For its implementation of many recommendations of the 1999 Restoration Master Plan 

            for the development and beautification of Victoria Park.  The fifteen acre park in the city 

             centre was originally the location of the Infantry Barracks, was given to the city by 

             the Crown and named in honour of Queen Victoria.  It is the vibrant heart of London 

             with an estimated million and a half users each year.

 Coyne, James Andrew, - 2013                                                            

            This prominent journalist has over decades given intellectual support for the Canadian

            Monarchy in the national media based on a real understanding of the Crown’s nature

            and historic role and without shying away from features that are assumed to be 

            weaknesses but showing them in fact to be strengths.

 Denter, John Paul, U.E., - 2006                                                                 

           For at least three decades, he has worked tirelessly, giving of his time, talent and 

            substance in making the legacy of the Crown known within the heritage community, 

            seeing that it is recognized and appreciated by the public school system and directly 

            assisting The Canadian Royal Heritage Trust as a benefactor and volunteer.         


 Fairmont Royal York Hotel, Toronto, - 2004      

            Restored the coats-of-arms of King George V, Queen Mary and other members of the 

           Royal Family on the wall of the anteroom of the Imperial Rom as they were when the 

            hotel opened in 1929.

 Fiennes-Clinton, Richard James, - 2018                                                           

             For a lifetime dedication to local heritage that led him to establish Muddy York 

             Walking Tours in 1997 to communicate his knowledge and enthusiasm to the wider 

             public.  Researching, lecturing and writing on Toronto’s history he has shown a 

             particular awareness of its diverse royal character.  

 Galbraith, J. William, - 2015                                                                                 

             For his biography, the first to treat its subject from a Canadian standpoint, John Buchan, 

            Model Governor General, the research and writing of which spanned decades.  

 Gauthier, Lieutenant-Colonel Carl, MMM, CD, - 2018                                      

             For the expertise, quality and care he has shown in creating official medals such as the 

             Queen’s Golden Jubilee Medal, in developing concepts and designs of other honours and 

             particularly in ensuring the high standard of the Queen’s portrait and depiction of the 

             Royal Crown on them since he joined the directorate of Honours and Recognition in 


 Hello! Canada Magazine, - 2010                                                            

             Since it first published in 2005, Hello! Canada has brought to Canadians news of their

            Royal Family – news no longer provided by mainstream media – thereby making an 

            important contribution to the country’s living royal heritage.  

 “Honour Our 1812 Heroes” Committee, - 2012                             

            By perseverance, meticulous research and persuasive argument, the committee realized 

             its vision of the inherent continuity of the soldiers of King George III to Queen Elizabeth 

            II being recognized by the Crown and modern Canadian regiments permitted to t

             perpetuate War of 1812 battle honours.


Horlock, Elizabeth, - 2004.    

            For making the Monarchy a regular part of her English lessons for new Canadians.


Jackson, Howard Kent, - 2010 


Jackson, Michael, CVO, - 2004                                                                        

             For writings on the Crown, work in developing the Saskatchewan Order of 

             Merit and his role in the augmentation of the arms of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 

             in right of the Province of Saskatchewan.; 


Joyal, l’honorable Serge, - 2004

            For making of the Francophonie Room of the Senate of Canada a glorious celebration of 

            the country’s French Sovereigns.  Senator Joyal’s munificent donation of portraits of 

             Canada’s French and British Monarchs enriched not only the Senate in Ottawa but The 

             Citadel in Quebec City as well.    


Kennett, Margaret Lillian – 2008                                                       

            Established a Quinte branch of the Friends of the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust in 2004, 

            leading it for three years during which she put on displays to mark royal events and 

            educate the public, created a float to celebrate the Queen’s 80t birthday for the Belleville 

            waterfront parade and established good relations with the media.


Kenny, The Honourable Jason, - 2011                                                         

            From his appointment as Minister of Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism in 

            2008, he worked to enhance the place of the Sovereign, Royal Family and other national 

            institutions in Canada’s civic liturgy. 


Legislative Assembly of Alberta, - 2010                                                 

            Installed the cypher of Queen Elizabeth II surmounting the Canadian Golden Jubilee 

            Device in glass over the central front door of the Legislature in Edmonton and also 

             installed in glass over the two exterior doors and two intertior ones on each side of the 

             central doors the royal cyphers of King Edward VII, King George V, King Edward VIII 

             and King George VI.  The installations marked Alberta’s Centenary as a province in 

             2005 and the visit of Her Majesty The Queen for that celebration.


Lohman, Professor Jack, CBE and The Royal British Columbia Museum, - 2013  

            The Royal British Columbia Museum has preserved the natural and human history of the 

             province for a century ad a quarter and has never neglected to tell its royal story.  

             Its Queen Elizabeth II by Cecil Beaton : A Diamond Jubilee Celebration was a good 

            example of the latter and the work of Professor Lohman.  


Mackay, The Honourable Peter Gordon, - 2015                                                        

            As Minister of National Defence he strengthened the Armed Forces’ ability to protect 

            Canada’s identity around the world by restoring their royal names, identity and heritage, 

            thus reconnecting form and substance and enhancing esprit de corps for Canada’s sailors, 

            soldiers and aviators.


Mahon, Peter Anthony,- 2019                                                                         

            As Artistic Director of the Tallis Choir which specializes in music of the Renaissance he  

             has ensured that important court and royal composers of that and other eras have 

             continued to be a part of Canada’s current musical experience.       


McCreery, Christopher Paul, - 2009                                                             

            For contribution to scholarship on the Monarchy by his 2005 book The Canadian 

            Honours System.


The Monarchist League of Canada / La ligue monarchist du Canada, - 2004 

           For its successful student intern programme under which many young Canadians have been able to work  

           in the office of the Queen’s provincial representatives and thereby be educated in the daily working of the  



Morrow, Robert Maxwell, - 2016                                                             

            His record as a friend of royal heritage when the longest serving Mayor of Gamilton

             and as a Councillor was outstanding .  Visits to the city by senior members of the Royal 

             Family and by Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, restoration of Louis Hebert’s statue of

             statue of Queen Victoria in The Gore carried out and King George School saved from

             demolition thanks to him.  


Pachter, Charles, - 2016                                                                    

            In his 1972 Queen on a Moose, this artist had the brilliance to create an iconic image that 

            with gentle and affectionate irony expressed the perfect convergence of Monarch and 

            country.  He went on to develop a whole series in the same vein.   


Patten, Laurence, - 2004                                                                                

            Painted the coats-of-arms at Government House, Victoria of Sovereigns and members of 

            the Royal Family who had stayed at or visited the residence during its long history.


Pictou County Branch of The Monarchist League of Canda and the chairman Peter Underwood, - 2004                                                                                                         

            For planting trees in Acadia Park in Westville, Nova Scotia along with a plaque to mark 

            the hundredth birthday of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother in 2000.


Podluzny, Captain Max, - 2004                                                                       

            Initiated the refurbishment of the Cenotaph in the City of Edmonton.


Royal British Columbia Museum, - 2013 [see Lohman, Professor Jack, CBE]


Russell, Peter Howard, OC, FRSC, - 2019                                                    

            To recognize a lifelong record through teaching, writing and public service of advocating 

            constitutional monarchy as one of the foundational principles of Canada.

Sinclair, Rev’d Canon Stanley R., - 2013  

             A descendant of two signers of the American Declaration of Independence, he moved 

            north, took his oath to the Queen of Canada, became a Canadian Citizen and worked 

            to fulfil the spirit as well as the letter of his pledge of fidelity by leading a branch  of The 

            Monarchist League of Canada and working to educate the public and cause his chosen 

           country’s royal heritage to be better known and valued.  


Scott, Robert D., - 2012     

            For outstanding volunteer service to the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust, in particular to 

            its community outreach programme, in the museum field and in engaging young 

            Canadians to learn about their royal identity through the education system.


Temporale,Jr, Louis, - 2004                                                                                           

            Restored the statue of His Majesty King George VI at Niagara Falls for the Niagara   

            Parks Commssion.  Mr Temporale’s father Louis Temporale (1909-1994) carved the    

            original statue in 1963.


Thompson-McCaw, Jane Anne, 2005  

             As a veteran journalist and noted community activist, devoted a great deal of time and 

            effort making the Quinte region of Ontario aware of Canada’s motif of monarchy, 

            work that included chairing the Belleville Branch of The Monarchist League of Canada 

            and helping establish the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust locally.  


Tidridge, Nathan, - 2013                                                                             

            As a volunteer has for a decade provided service to the Crown; as a skilful and 

            dedicated young teacher has presented the heritage of monarchy to young Canadians and 

             sought reform of the school curriculum to better reflect Canada’s royal identity; and now 

             as an author has produced two important books on the Crown.  


Toronto Branch, The Monarchist League of Canada, - 2004; 

            It both added to the country’s royal heritage and enhanced an existing royal site by 

            creating the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Rose Garden, with plaque bearing the 

            profile of the Sovereign, on the grounds of t he Ontario Legislature.  The Golden Jubilee 

            Rose Garden was inaugurated by HRH The Duke of York.

Toronto Branch, Royal Heraldry Society of Canada, - 2009               

            Raising awareness that the 126 shields of arms in the Great Hall of Hart House at the 

            University of Toronto, designed and painted by Alexander Scot Carter with the Royal 

            Arms of King George V as their centerpiece, seriously needed restoration and initiating 

            fundraising to allow it to be begun. 


Velder, Susan, - 2005                                                                                    

            For designing a larger than life equestrian statue of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on 

            her Canadian horse Burmese for the capital city of Regina as part of Saskatchewan’s 

            celebration of the Monarch’s Golden Jubilee


Wilkes, John Ballergal, - 2006                                                      

             For his work in obtaining the designation Royal for the Royal Heraldry Society of 

            Canada from the Sovereign and his service as Trustee of the Canadian Royal Heritage 


Mr and Mrs P.A. Woodward Foundation, Vancouver, - 2004       

            For the original donation and the recent restoration of the statue of His Majesty 

            King George VI at the Woodward Biomedical Centre on the campus of the University 

            of British Columbia.